We'll start from the beginning – namely, with the novel. The full title is «Last and First Men: A Story of the Near and Far Future». This is a fairly large book, and what you can see in the film is only a small part from the last two chapters. The novel describes the development of humanity over 2 billion years. During this time, 18 species of people changed from the first men – our contemporaries – to the eighteenth men and a huge number of civilizations.
The book is full of details. It impresses the reader with the scale of the events described. Despite the fact that it was written as early as 1930 (just think about it, almost a hundred years ago), Olaf Stapledon showed a large number of new fantastic and futurological ideas of his time, many of which have already come true. He was able to predict such things as the rise of Communists to power in China, the establishment of the European Union, the Americanization of culture throughout the planet, the Cold War and nuclear weapons, pandemics of new type, the development of hydrocarbon reserves in Antarctica, wars over oil shortages, architectural megalomania, alternative energy, genetic engineering, synthetic food, space sail and much more. And if all that came true, then could all the rest come true as well? However, as I said before, none of this is included into the film. The movie is the message of one of the Last men, it's a squeeze from the last chapters and the quintessence of the main idea of Stapledon – the evolution of body and spirit.
This is understandable, you will say. But what are these piles of concrete that we were forced to look at? This is what the people call Spomenik.