In his further description of the director's use of cinematic means as part of the staging of the action, Hitchcock enumerates the following items: 1) sets and art direction; 2) lighting; 3) camera; 4) sound; 5) music; 6) colour; 7) widescreen; 8) editing; 9) the machinery of filmmaking. But the main factor to be borne in mind in art direction, as in other areas of filmmaking, is complete control, which can be exercised not only over what the audience sees or not on the screen but even over the actual movements of the eye.
Camera movements are divided into two categories. First focuses on movements in relation to the characters' ones, in which case the camera follows the person. The important factor here is that the scene has to be shot in such a natural way, that the audience should never be aware of the camera. The second category focuses on a dramatic movement of the camera when the character is in repose. In this case the camera may dolly up to the face of the character for emphasis, or dolly away at the end of a scene to reveal a lonely figure standing by themself in the center of a room. So used, the camera can make a metaphorical statement for a dramatic purpose.
The sound has many functions, according to Hitchcock, such as dialogue in combination with images. Sound also can be used to illustrate the character's stream of consciousness along with the image of a thoughtful, silent face — as an interior monologue. For Hitchcock, the sound is generally useful in expressing the mental processes of the characters or creating suspense. In his discussion with the French film director François Truffaut, Hitchcock cited a scene from Sabotage (1936)
. A young boy, Stevie, is delivering a package on behalf of his stepfather. Unknown to him, the package contains a bomb, set to detonate at a particular time. As Stevie finds himself increasingly delayed, our anxiety grows that he will be unable to deliver it in time. We are tense because we know something that the character doesn't - what's in the package, and when it is due to detonate and Hitchcock increases the feeling by interposing a series of shots of clocks and package's contents. A recurring ticking sound is heard on the soundtrack.
Music also gives a certain vibe to a film. It is perfectly in accordance with the aim of the motion picture, namely to unfold the action or to tell a story, and thereby stir the emotions.